Associate Professor 

B.S. (Distinction) (University of Hawaii at Manoa, Chemistry)

Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Neuroscience)

Phone: 2831 5363


ORCID: 0000-0003-4239-6851

Research Gate HKU Scholars Hub


My primary research focus is on neuroprotection in retinal and cerebral ischemic injury. We aim to develop and use animal models for understanding the underlying mechanisms of retinal and cerebral ischemic injury as well as providing a platform for screening of various pharmacological and natural agents, with a long-term goal of developing new therapeutic targets and novel neuroprotective agents of clinical efficacy in the treatment of ischemic retinopathy and cerebral ischemia.

The current research focus includes:

  1. Neuroprotection in retinal degenerative diseases – biology and therapeutics

  2. Ocular angiogenesis – disease, mechanisms and therapeutics

  3. Bioengineering – intraocular drug delivery and intraocular tamponades

  4. Pathogenesis of stroke using various transgenic and knockout mouse model




  • 9th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2014)

  • Physiology Symposium 2014 & Joint Scientific Conference of The Hong Kong Society of Neurosciences & The Biophysical Society of Hong Kong (2014)

  • 10th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2015)


Organizing Committee:

  • Joint Scientific Conference of The Hong Kong Society of Neurosciences & The Biophysical Society of Hong Kong (2012)

  • 11th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2016)

  • Neuroscience Symposium 2016 Annual Scientific Conference of The Hong Kong Society of Neurosciences (2016)

  • 12th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2017)

  • 13th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2018)

  • 14th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2019)

  • 15th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2021)

  • 16th International Symposium on Healthy Aging (2022)


Group Facilitator, Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Seminar, HKU

Moderator, Research Integrity for Graduate Students, HKU

Faculty Academic Advisor, LKS Faculty of Medicine, HKU

Preceptorship for MBBS Students, LKS Faculty of Medicine, HKU

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Educator, LKS Faculty of Medicine, HKU

Equal Opportunity Advisor, Department of Ophthalmology, HKU



  • Young Investigator Committee, International Society for Eye Research (ISER)

  • Women in Eye and Vision Research (WEAVR) Networking Committee, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)

  • Women in Eye and Vision Research (WEAVR) Leadership Committee, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO)

  • Mentor, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Global Mentorship Program

  • Member, The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Animals in Research Committee (ARC)



Primary supervisor:

   Graduated -  9 PhD, 2 MPhil and 2 MRes[Med] students

   Current - 5 PhD, 1 MRes[Med]

Co-supervisor :

   Graduated -  7 PhD, 2 MPhil and 4 MRes[Med] students

   Current -  1 PhD, 4 MRes[Med]

External Examiner for 8 PhD theses - Macau University of Science and Technology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Internal Examiner for 31 PhD, 5 MPhil and 2 MMedSc theses – The University of Hong Kong
Thesis Examination Committee Chairman for 15 PhD and 6 MPhil theses – The University of Hong Kong

Referred publications (* corresponding author) :
[Books Chapters] [2022-2017] [2016-2015] [2014-2013] [2012-2009] [2007-2001] [1997-1994] {Collaborations}


  1. Liu J, Tsang JKW, Fung FKC, Chung SK, Fu Z*, Lo ACY*. Retinal microglia protect against vascular damage in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Aug 17;13:945130. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.945130. eCollection 2022.PMID: 36059936

  2. Lo ACY*, Yang M. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides and ferroptosis: jumping into the era of novel regulated cell death. Neural Regen Res. 2022 Jul;17(7):1473-1474. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.330600. PMID: 34916422

  3. Lai AKW, Ng TC, Hung VKL, Tam KC, Cheung CW, Chung SK, Lo ACY*. Exacerbated VEGF up-regulation accompanies diabetes-aggravated hemorrhage in mice after experimental cerebral ischemia and delayed reperfusion. Neural Regen Res. 2022 Jul;17(7):1566-1575. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.330612. PMID: 34916442

  4. Wang Y, Fung NSK, Lam WC, Lo ACY*. mTOR Signalling Pathway: A Potential Therapeutic Target for Ocular Neurodegenerative Diseases. Antioxidants (Basel). 2022 Jun 29;11(7):1304. doi: 10.3390/antiox11071304.PMID: 35883796

  5. Yu WS, Aquili L, Wong KH, Lo ACY, Chan LLH, Chan YS, Lim LW. Transcorneal electrical stimulation enhances cognitive functions in aged and 5XFAD mouse models. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2022 Jun 25. doi: 10.1111/nyas.14850. Online ahead of print. PMID: 35751874

  6. Yu WS, Tse AC, Guan L, Chiu JLY, Tan SZK, Khairuddin S, Agadagba SK, Lo ACY, Fung ML, Chan YS, Chan LLH, Lim LW. Antidepressant-like effects of transcorneal electrical stimulation in rat models. Brain Stimul. 2022 May-Jun;15(3):843-856. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2022.05.018. Epub 2022 May 28.PMID: 35640844

  7. Yang M, Tsui MG, Tsang JKW, Goit RK, Yao KM, So KF*, Lam WC*, Lo ACY*. Involvement of FSP1-CoQ10-NADH and GSH-GPx-4 pathways in retinal pigment epithelium ferroptosis. Cell Death Dis. 2022 May 18;13(5):468. doi: 10.1038/s41419-022-04924-4. PMID: 35585057 

  8. Goit RK, Taylor AW, Lo ACY*. The central melanocortin system as a treatment target for obesity and diabetes: A brief overview. Eur J Pharmacol. 2022 Jun 5;924:174956. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2022.174956. Epub 2022 Apr 14. PMID: 35430211

  9. Goit RK, Taylor AW, Lo ACY*. Anti-inflammatory α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Protects Retina After Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Type I Diabetes. Front Neurosci. 2022 Feb 25;16:799739. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2022.799739. eCollection 2022. PMID: 35281489

  10. Zhou T, Lee A, Lo ACY*, Kwok JSWJ. Diabetic Corneal Neuropathy: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Feb 23;13:816062. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.816062. eCollection 2022. PMID: 35281903

  11. Goit RK, Ng TC, Tam KC, Tsang JKW, Taylor AW*, Lo ACY*. Neuropeptide α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Promotes Neurological Recovery and Repairs Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Type 1 Diabetes. Neurochem Res. 2022 Feb;47(2):394-408. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03453-4. Epub 2021 Sep 29. PMID: 34586586

  12. Lai JSM, Chan HHL, Chan JCH, Lo ACY, Lee JWY, Chang RCC, So KF. Neuroprotective effects of wolfberry in normal tension glaucoma: abridged secondary publication. Hong Kong Med J. 2022 Feb;28 Suppl 1(1):46-47.PMID: 35260518



  1. Bu Y, Chan YK, Wong HL, Poon SH, Lo AC, Shih KC, Tong L. A Review of the Impact of Alterations in Gut Microbiome on the Immunopathogenesis of Ocular Diseases. J Clin Med. 2021 Oct 13;10(20):4694. doi: 10.3390/jcm10204694. PMID: 34682816

  2. Long K, Yang Y, Lv W, Jiang K, Li Y, Lo ACY, Lam WC, Zhan C, Wang W. Green Light-Triggered Intraocular Drug Release for Intravenous Chemotherapy of Retinoblastoma. Adv Sci (Weinh). 2021 Aug 27:e2101754. doi: 10.1002/advs.202101754. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34448360

  3. Wong HL, Hung LT, Kwok SS, Bu Y, Lin Y, Shum HC, Wang H, Lo ACY, Yam GHF, Jhanji V, Shih KC, Chan YK. The anti-scarring role of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on cornea epithelial-stromal injury. Exp Eye Res. 2021 Aug 24;211:108747. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108747. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34450184

  4. Yang M, So KF, Lam WC, Lo ACY*. Cell Ferroptosis: New Mechanism and New Hope for Retinitis Pigmentosa. Cells. 2021 Aug 21;10(8):2153. doi: 10.3390/cells10082153. PMID: 34440922

  5. Tang LHC, Fung FKC, Lai AKW, Wong IYH, Shih KC, Lo ACY*. Autophagic Upregulation Is Cytoprotective in Ischemia/Reperfusion-Injured Retina and Retinal Progenitor Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Aug 6;22(16):8446. doi: 10.3390/ijms22168446. PMID: 34445152

  6. Hu T, Lo ACY*. Collagen-Alginate Composite Hydrogel: Application in Tissue Engineering and Biomedical Sciences. Polymers (Basel). 2021 Jun 2;13(11):1852. doi: 10.3390/polym13111852. PMID: 34199641

  7. Nian S, Lo ACY, Mi Y, Ren K, Yang D: Neurovascular unit in diabetic retinopathy: pathophysiological roles and potential therapeutical targets. Eye Vis (Lond). 2021 May 1;8(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s40662-021-00239-1. PMID: 33931128

  8. Shao Z, Wang Z, Lo ACY, Fu Z: Editorial: Novel Therapeutic Target and Drug Development in Neurovascular Retinal Diseases. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Apr 15;12:657684. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2021.657684. eCollection 2021. PMID: 33935774

  9. Tsang JKW, Wolf SA, Pompoes IM, Joussen AM, Lam WC, Yang D, Lo ACY*: Potential Effects of Nutraceuticals in Retinopathy of Prematurity. Life (Basel). 2021 Jan 22;11(2):79. doi: 10.3390/life11020079. PMID: 33499180.

  10. Wong HL, Poon SHL, Bu Y, Lo ACY, Jhanji V, Chan YK, Shih KC: A Systematic Review on Cornea Epithelial-Stromal Homeostasis. Ophthalmic Res. 2021;64(2):178-191. doi: 10.1159/000509030. Epub 2020 May 29. PMID: 32474566

  11. Nian S, Kearns VR, Wong DSH, Bachhuka A, Vasilev K, Williams RL, Lai WW, Lo A, Sheridan CM: Plasma polymer surface modified expanded polytetrafluoroethylene promotes epithelial monolayer formation in vitro and can be transplanted into the dystrophic rat subretinal space. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2021 Jan;15(1):49-62. doi: 10.1002/term.3154. Epub 2020 Nov 23. PMID: 33180364.


  1. Lai AKW, Ng DTC, Tam BKC, Fung FKC, Chung SK, Lo ACY*: Lutein for alleviating early high mortality and brain pathology after experimental stroke in a genetic type I diabetic mouse model: abridged secondary publication. Hong Kong Med J. 2020 Dec;26 Suppl 7(6):37-41. PMID: 33229618.

  2. Mi XS, Feng Q, Lo ACY, Chang RC, Chung SK, So KF: Lycium barbarum polysaccharides related RAGE and Aβ levels in the retina of mice with acute ocular hypertension and promote maintenance of blood retinal barrier. Neural Regen Res. 2020 Dec;15(12):2344-2352. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.284998. PMID: 32594059.

  3. Kwok SS, Wong FS, Shih KC, Chan YK, Bu Y, Chan TC, Ng AL, Lo AC, Tong L, Yam GH, Jhanji V: Lycium barbarum Polysaccharide Suppresses Expression of Fibrotic Proteins in Primary Human Corneal Fibroblasts. J Clin Med. 2020 Nov 6;9(11):3572. doi: 10.3390/jcm9113572. PMID: 33171906.

  4. Poon SHL, Wong WHL, Lo ACY, Yuan H, Chen CF, Jhanji V, Chan YK, Shih KC. A systematic review on advances in diagnostics for herpes simplex keratitis. Surv Ophthalmol. 2020 Nov 10:S0039-6257(20)30138-7. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2020.09.008. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33186564.

  5. Yang M, So KF, Lam WC*, Lo ACY*: Novel Programmed Cell Death as Therapeutic Targets in Age-Related Macular Degeneration? Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 1;21(19):E7279. doi: 10.3390/ijms21197279. PMID: 33019767. 

  6. Yang M, Lo ACY*, Lam WC*: Smart phone apps every ophthalmologist should know about. Int J Ophthalmol. 2020 Aug 18;13(8):1329-1333. doi: 10.18240/ijo.2020.08.21. eCollection 2020. PMID: 32821689.

  7. Wang W, Tam KC, Ng TC, Goit RK, Chan KLS, Lo ACY*: Long-term lutein administration attenuates retinal inflammation and functional deficits in early diabetic retinopathy using the Ins2Akita/+ mice. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020 Jul;8(1):e001519. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001519. PMID: 32665315

  8. Yang M, So KF, Lo ACY*, Lam WC*: The Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on Pyroptosis-Associated Amyloid β1-40 Oligomers-Induced Adult Retinal Pigment Epithelium 19 Cell Damage. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 30;21(13):E4658. doi: 10.3390/ijms21134658. PMID: 32629957.

  9. Li LH, Lee JC, Leung HH, Lam WC, Fu Z, Lo ACY*: Lutein Supplementation for Eye Diseases. Nutrients. 2020 Jun 9;12(6):E1721. doi: 10.3390/nu12061721. PMID: 32526861. 

  10. Poon SHL, Wong WHL, Bu Y, Lo ACY, Jhanji V, Chan YK, Shih KC: A Systematic Review of Emerging Therapeutic Strategies in the Management of Chemical Injuries of the Ocular Surface. Eye Contact Lens. 2020 May 22. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000715. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32452924.


  1. Bu Y, Shih KC, Kwok SS, Chan YK, Lo AC, Chan TCY, Jhanji V, Tong L: Experimental modeling of cornea wound healing in diabetes: clinical applications and beyond. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2019 Nov 27;7(1):e000779. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000779. eCollection 2019. Review. PMID: 31803484.

  2. Kwok SS, Shih KC, Bu Y, Lo AC, Chan TC, Lai JS, Jhanji V, Tong L: Systematic Review on Therapeutic Strategies to Minimize Corneal Stromal Scarring After Injury. Eye Contact Lens. 2019 Nov;45(6):347-355. doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000584. PMID: 30724841.

  3. Tsang JKW, Liu J, Lo ACY*: Vascular and Neuronal Protection in the Developing Retina: Potential Therapeutic Targets for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 3;20(17). pii: E4321. doi: 10.3390/ijms20174321. Review. PMID: 31484463.

  4. Wong FSY, Tsang KK, Chu AMW, Chan BP, Yao KM, Lo ACY*: Injectable cell-encapsulating composite alginate-collagen platform with inducible termination switch for safer ocular drug delivery. Biomaterials. 2019 May;201:53-67. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.01.032. Epub 2019 Feb 5. PMID: 30797114.

  5. Lin R, Duan Z, Sun H, Fung ML, Chen H, Wang J, Lau CF, Yang D, Liu Y, Ni Y, Wang Z, Cui J, Wu W, Yung WH, Chan YS, Lo ACY, Xia J, Shen J, Huang JD: Kinesin-1 Regulates Extrasynaptic Targeting of NMDARs and Neuronal Vulnerability Toward Excitotoxicity. iScience. 2019 Mar 29;13:82-97. doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2019.02.009. Epub 2019 Feb 18. PMID: 30826728.

  6. Kwok SS, Bu Y, Lo AC, Chan TC, So KF, Lai JS, Shih KC: A Systematic Review of Potential Therapeutic Use of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides in Disease. Biomed Res Int. 2019 Feb 12;2019:4615745. doi: 10.1155/2019/4615745. eCollection 2019. PMID: 30891458.


  1. Fu L, Lai JSM, Lo ACY, Shih KC: Induction of significant intraocular pressure diurnal fluctuation in rats using a modified technique of microbead occlusion. Int J Ophthalmol. 2018 Jul 18;11(7):1114-1119. doi: 10.18240/ijo.2018.07.07. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30046526.

  2. Wang W, Lo ACY*: Diabetic Retinopathy: Pathophysiology and Treatments. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jun 20;19(6):1816. doi: 10.3390/ijms19061816. PMID: 29925789. Review.

  3. Fu L, Fung FK, Lo AC, Chan YK, So KF, Wong IY, Shih KC, Lai JS: Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation Inhibits Retinal Microglial Activation and Enhances Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival After Acute Ocular Hypertensive Injury. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2018 May 29;7(3):7. doi: 10.1167/tvst.7.3.7. eCollection 2018 May. PMID: 29862139.

  4. Zhu MM, Lai JSM, Choy BNK, Shum JWH, Lo ACY, Ng ALK, Chan JCH, So KF: Physical exercise and glaucoma: a review on the roles of physical exercise on intraocular pressure control, ocular blood flow regulation, neuroprotection and glaucoma-related mental health. Acta Ophthalmol. 2018 Sep;96(6):e676-e691. doi: 10.1111/aos.13661. Epub 2018 Jan 16. PMID: 29338126. Review.


  1. Qiu Q, Sun L, Wang XM, Lo ACY, Wong KL, Gu P, Wong SCS, Cheung CW: Propofol produces preventive analgesia via GluN2B-containing NMDA Receptor/ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway in a rat model of inflammatory pain. Mol Pain. 2017 Jan-Dec;13:1744806917737462. doi: 10.1177/1744806917737462. PMID: 28969472.

  2. Yang D, So KF, Lo AC*:  Lycium barbarum polysaccharide extracts preserve retinal function and attenuate inner retinal neuronal damage in a mouse model of transient retinal ischaemia. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017 Sep;45(7):717-729. doi: 10.1111/ceo.12950. Epub 2017 Apr 27. PMID: 28349587.

  3. Fu Z, Meng SS, Burnim SB, Smith LE, Lo AC*: Lutein facilitates physiological revascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2017 Jul;45(5):529-538. doi: 10.1111/ceo.12908. Epub 2017 Jan 29. PMID: 28002872.

  4. Wong FSY, Tsang KK, Lo ACY*: Delivery of therapeutics to posterior eye segment: cell-encapsulating systems. Neural Regen Res. 2017 Apr;12(4):576-577. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.205093. No abstract available. PMID: 28553333.

  5. Wu AG, Zeng W, Wong VK, Zhu YZ, Lo AC, Liu L, Law BY: Hederagenin and α-hederin promote degradation of proteins in neurodegenerative diseases and improve motor deficits in MPTP-mice. Pharmacol Res. 2017 Jan;115:25-44. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2016.11.002. Epub 2016 Nov 9. PMID: 27838509


  1. Fung FK, Law BY, Lo AC*: Lutein Attenuates Both Apoptosis and Autophagy upon Cobalt (II) Chloride-Induced Hypoxia in Rat Műller Cells. PLoS One. 2016 Dec 9;11(12):e0167828. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0167828. PMID: 27936094.

  2. Chan JF, Yip CC, Tsang JO, Tee KM, Cai JP, Chik KK, Zhu Z, Chan CC, Choi GK, Sridhar S, Zhang AJ, Lu G, Chiu K, Lo AC, Tsao SW, Kok KH, Jin DY, Chan KH, Yuen KY: Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016 Aug 24;5:e93. doi: 10.1038/emi.2016.99. PMID: 27553173

  3. Wong FS, Wong CC, Chan BP, Lo AC*: Sustained Delivery of Bioactive GDNF from Collagen and Alginate-Based Cell-Encapsulating Gel Promoted Photoreceptor Survival in an Inherited Retinal Degeneration Model. PLoS One. 2016 Jul 21;11(7):e0159342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159342. PMID: 27441692

  4. Zheng F, Jang WC, Fung FK, Lo AC*, Wong IY: Up-Regulation of ENO1 by HIF-1α in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells after Hypoxic Challenge Is Not Involved in the Regulation of VEGF Secretion. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 16;11(2):e0147961. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0147961. eCollection 2016. PMID: 26882120


  1. Wong FSY, Lo ACY*: Collagen-Based Scaffolds for Cell Therapies in the Injured Brain. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015 5:267. doi: 10.4172/2157-7633.1000267.

  2. Fu L, Lo AC, Lai JS, Shih KC. Comparison of electroretinographic responses between two different age groups of adult Dark Agouti rats. Int J Ophthalmol. 2015 Oct 18;8(5):898-903. doi: 10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2015.05.08. PMID: 26558198

  3. Hung VK, Yeung PK, Lai AK, Ho MC, Lo AC, Chan KC, Wu EX, Chung SS, Cheung CW, Chung SK: Selective astrocytic endothelin-1 overexpression contributes to dementia associated with ischemic stroke by exaggerating astrocyte-derived amyloid secretion. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 Oct;35(10):1687-96. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2015.109. PMID: 26104290

  4. Fu Z, Nian S, Li SY, Wong D, Chung SK, Lo AC*: Deficiency of aldose reductase attenuates inner retinal neuronal changes in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Sep;253(9):1503-13. doi: 10.1007/s00417-015-3024-0. PMID: 25921391.

  5. Liu J, Yeung PK, Cheng L, Lo AC, Chung SS, Chung SK. Epac2-deficiency leads to more severe retinal swelling, glial reactivity and oxidative stress in transient middle cerebral artery occlusion induced ischemic retinopathy. Sci China Life Sci. 2015 Jun;58(6):521-30. doi: 10.1007/s11427-015-4860-1. PMID: 25985753.

  6. Yu Y, Lau LC, Lo AC, Chau Y: Injectable Chemically Crosslinked Hydrogel for the Controlled Release of Bevacizumab in Vitreous: A 6-Month In Vivo Study. Transl Vis Sci Technol. 2015 Mar 10;4(2):5. PMID: 25774331.

  7. Yu WY, Grierson I, Sheridan C, Lo ACY, and Wong D: Bovine posterior limbus: an evaluation of an alternative source for corneal endothelial and trabecular meshwork stem/progenitor cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2015 Mar 1;24(5):624-39. doi: 10.1089/scd.2014.0257. PMID: 25323922.

  8. Fu L, Lo AC, Lai JS, Shih KC: The role of electrical stimulation therapy in ophthalmic diseases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Feb;253(2):171-6. doi: 10.1007/s00417-014-2889-7. Epub 2014 Dec 14. Review. PMID: 25501299.

  9. Liu J, Lai CHY, Lo ACY*: Therapeutic strategies for retinopathy of prematurity. H K J Ophthalmol. 2015 19(1):8-15



  1. Wong FS, Chan BP, Lo AC*: Carriers in cell-based therapies for neurological disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2014 Jun 13;15(6):10669-723. doi: 10.3390/ijms150610669. Review. PMID: 24933636

  2. Fu L, Lo AC, Lai JS, Shih KC: The role of electrical stimulation therapy in ophthalmic diseases. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2015 Feb;253(2):171-6. doi: 10.1007/s00417-014-2889-7. Epub 2014 Dec 14. PMID: 25501299. PMID: 25323922.


  1. Williams RL, Kearns VR, Lo AC*, Day M, Garvey MJ, Krishna Y, Ma D, Stappler T, Wong D: Novel heavy tamponade for vitreoretinal surgery. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Nov 5;54(12):7284-92. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-11876. PMID: 24130181.

  2. Lai AK, Lo AC*: Animal models of diabetic retinopathy: summary and comparison. J Diabetes Res. 2013;2013:106594. doi: 10.1155/2013/106594. Epub 2013 Oct 27. PMID: 24286086.

  3. Lo ACY*, Lai AKW, Fu ZJ: Stem cell therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Anat Physiol. 2013;3:126. doi: 10.4172/2161-0940.1000126. Review.

  4. Suen WL, Wong HS, Yu Y, Lau LCM, Lo AC, Chau Y: Ultrasound-mediated transscleral delivery of macromolecules to the posterior segment of rabbit eye in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013 Jun 26;54(6):4358-65. doi: 10.1167/iovs.13-11978. PMID: 23722390.

  5. Abari E, Kociok N, Hartmann U, Semkova I, Paulsson M, Lo A, Joussen AM: Alterations in basement membrane immunoreactivity of the diabetic retina in three diabetic mice models. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013 Mar;251(3):763-75. doi: 10.1007/s00417-012-2237-8. Epub 2012 Dec 21. PMID: 23263623.

  6. Wu KS, Li SY, Lo ACY, Ngan AHW, Wong DSH, So KF, Ellis-Behnke RG, Tang B: Micro-scale Stiffness Change of Cornea Tissues Suffered from Elevated Intraocular Pressure Investigated by Nanoindentation. Soft Materials. 2013 Feb;11(3):244-253. doi:10.1080/1539445X.2011.622030. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

  7. Woo TT, Li SY, Lai WW, Wong D, Lo AC*: Neuroprotective effects of lutein in a rat model of retinal detachment. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2013 Jan;251(1):41-51. doi: 10.1007/s00417-012-2128-z. Epub 2012 Aug 18. PMID: 22899456.



  1. Cheung YH, Sheridan CM, Lo AC*, Lai WW: Lectin from Agaricus bisporus inhibited S phase cell population and Akt phosphorylation in human RPE cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Nov 5;53(12):7469-75. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10589. PMID: 23036999.

  2. Mi XS, Feng Q, Lo AC, Chang RC, Lin B, Chung SK, So KF: Protection of retinal ganglion cells and retinal vasculature by Lycium barbarum polysaccharides in a mouse model of acute ocular hypertension. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e45469. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045469. Epub 2012 Oct 19. PMID: 23094016.

  3. Li SY, Fu ZJ, Lo AC*: Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress in ischemic retinopathy. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2012;2012:426769. doi: 10.1155/2012/426769. Epub 2012 Oct 17. Review. PMID: 23125893.

  4. Li SY, Fung FK, Fu ZJ, Wong D, Chan HH, Lo AC*: Anti-inflammatory effects of lutein in retinal ischemic/hypoxic injury: in vivo and in vitro studies. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Sep 6;53(10):5976-84. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10007. PMID: 22871829.

  5. Fu ZJ, Li SY, Kociok N, Wong D, Chung SK, Lo AC*: Aldose reductase deficiency reduced vascular changes in neonatal mouse retina in oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Aug 20;53(9):5698-712. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-10122. PMID: 22836764.

  6. Mi XS, Zhang X, Feng Q, Lo AC, Chung SK, So KF: Progressive retinal degeneration in transgenic mice with overexpression of endothelin-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Jul 20;53(8):4842-51. doi: 10.1167/iovs.12-9999. PMID: 22729434.

  7. Yang D, Li SY, Yeung CM, Chang RCC, So KF, Wong D, Lo AC*: Lycium barbarum extracts protect the brain from blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral edema in experimental stroke. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33596. Epub 2012 Mar 16. PMID: 22438957.

  8. Mi X-S, Chiu K, Van G, Leung JWC, Lo ACY, Chung SK, Chang RCC, So KF: Effect of Lycium barbarum Polysaccharides on the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors in an ocular hypertension model of rat glaucoma. Neural Regen Res. 2012 Mar;7(9):645-651.

  9. Mak K, Lo ACY, Lam A, Yeung PK, Chung SS, and Chung SK: Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 deficiency increases the severity of neuronal cell death in ischemic injury. Neurosignals. 2012;20(4):237-51. doi: 10.1159/000331899. Epub 2012 Jan 18. PMID: 23172129.

  10. Li SY, Yang D, Fu Z, Woo T, Wong D, Lo AC*: Lutein enhances survival and reduces neuronal damage in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Neurobiol Dis. 2012 Jan;45(1):624-32. Epub 2011 Oct 17. PMID: 22024715.



  1. Cheung SS, Leung JW, Lam AK, Lam KS, Chung SS, Lo AC*, Chung SK: Selective over-expression of endothelin-1 in endothelial cells exacerbates inner retinal edema and neuronal death in ischemic retina. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e26184. Epub 2011 Oct 28. PMID: 22053184.

  2. Lo ACY*, Woo TTY, Wong RLM, David Wong D: Apoptosis and other cell death mechanisms after retinal detachment: implications for photoreceptor rescue. Ophthalmologica. 2011;226 suppl 1:10–17. doi: 10.1159/000328206. Epub 2011 Jul 22. Review. PMID: 21778775.

  3. Li SY, Yang D, Yeung CM, Yu WY, Chang RC, So KF, Wong D, Lo AC*: Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury. PLoS One. 2011 Jan 26;6(1):e16380. PMID:21298100.

  4. Yu WY, Sheridan C, Grierson I, Mason S, Kearns V, Lo ACY, and Wong D: Progenitors for the corneal endothelium and trabecular meshwork: a potential source for personalized stem cell therapy in corneal endothelial diseases and glaucoma. Journal of Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:412743. doi: 10.1155/2011/412743. Epub 2011 Dec 6. Review. PMID 22187525.




  1. Li SY, Lo AC*: Lutein protects RGC-5 cells against hypoxia and oxidative stress. Int J Mol Sci. 2010 May 11;11(5):2109-17. PMID: 20559505.

  2. Yeung CM, Lo AC, Cheung AK, Chung SS, Wong D, Chung SK: More severe type 2 diabetes-associated ischemic stroke injury is alleviated in aldose reductase-deficient mice. J Neurosci Res. 2010 Jul;88(9):2026-34. PMID: 20143423.

  3. Williams CJ, Lui WC, Li KK, Wong D, Lo AC*: Correspondence. Retina. 2010 Mar;30(3):534-5; author reply 535-6.

  4. Chan MC, Chan RW, Yu WC, Ho CC, Yuen KM, Fong JH, Tang LL, Lai WW, Lo AC, Chui WH, Sihoe AD, Kwong DL, Wong DS, Tsao GS, Poon LL, Guan Y, Nicholls JM, Peiris JS: Tropism and innate host responses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in ex vivo and in vitro cultures of human conjunctiva and respiratory tract. Am J Pathol. 2010 Apr;176(4):1828-40. Epub 2010 Jan 28. PMID: 20110407.



  1. Yeung PK, Lo AC, Leung JW, Chung SS, Chung SK: Targeted overexpression of endothelin-1 in astrocytes leads to more severe cytotoxic brain edema and higher mortality. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Dec;29(12):1891-902. Epub 2009 Aug 26. PMID: 19707218.

  2. Lee M, Lo AC, Cheung PT, Wong D, and Chan BP: Drug carrier systems based on collagen-alginate composite structures for improving the performance of GDNF-secreting HEK293 cells. Biomaterials. 2009 Feb;30(6):1214-21. Epub 2008 Dec 6. PMID: 19059641.

  3. Li SY, Fu ZJ, Ma H, Jang WC, So KF, Wong D, and Lo AC*: Effect of lutein on retinal neurons and oxidative stress in a model of acute retinal ischemia/reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Feb;50(2):836-43. Epub 2008 Oct 20. PMID: 18936152.



  1. Cheung AK, Lo AC, So KF, Chung SS, Chung SK: Gene deletion and pharmacological inhibition of aldose reductase protect against retinal ischemic injury. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Nov;85(5):608-16. Epub 2007 Jul 25. PMID: 17727843.

  2. Lo AC, Cheung AK, Hung VK, Yeung CM, He QY, Chiu JF, Chung SS, Chung SK: Deletion of aldose reductase leads to protection against cerebral ischemic injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Aug;27(8):1496-509. Epub 2007 Feb 7. PMID: 17293845.




  1. Cheung AK, Fung MK, Lo AC, Lam TT, So KF, Chung SS, Chung SK: Aldose reductase deficiency prevents diabetes-induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown, apoptosis, and glial reactivation in the retina of db/db mice. Diabetes. 2005 Nov;54(11):3119-25. PMID: 16249434.

  2. Tsang MC, Lo AC, Chan TS, Chung SS, Chung SK: Expression of a neuropeptide, endothelin-1 in pons and medulla of prenatal and perinatal mouse brains. Int J Neurosci. 2005 Nov;115(11):1485-501. PMID: 16223696.

  3. Lo AC, Chen AY, Hung VK, Yaw LP, Fung MK, Ho MC, Tsang MC, Chung SS, Chung SK: Endothelin-1 overexpression leads to further water accumulation and brain edema after middle cerebral artery occlusion via aquaporin 4 expression in astrocytic end-feet. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Aug;25(8):998-1011. PMID: 15815585.



  1. Lo AC, Fung MK, Au CL, Chan TS, Sauer B, Chung SS, Chung SK: Transgenic mice over-expressing endothelin-1 in testis transactivated by a Cre/loxP system showed decreased testicular capillary blood flow. Transgenic Res. 2004 Apr;13(2):119-34. PMID: 15198200.

  2. Leung JW, Ho MC, Lo AC, Chung SS, Chung SK: Endothelial cell-specific over-expression of endothelin-1 leads to more severe cerebral damage following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2004 Nov;44 Suppl 1:S293-300. PMID: 15838304.



  1. Lam BY, Lo AC, Sun X, Luo HW, Chung SK, Sucher NJ: Neuroprotective effects of tanshinones in transient focal cerebral ischemia in mice. Phytomedicine. 2003 May;10(4):286-91. PMID: 12809358.



  1. Tsang MC, Lo AC, Cheung PT, Chung SS, Chung SK: Perinatal hypoxia-/ischemia-induced endothelin-1 mRNA in astrocyte-like and endothelial cells. NeuroReport 2001 Jul 20;12(10):2265-70. PMID: 11447347.

  2. Ho MC, Lo AC, Kurihara H, Yu AC, Chung SS, Chung SK: Endothelin-1 protects astrocytes from hypoxic/ischemic injury. FASEB J. 2001 Mar;15(3):618-26. PMID: 11259380.


  1. Xu H, Sweeney D, Wang R, Thinakaran G, Lo AC, Sisodia SS, Greengard P, and Gandy S: Generation of Alzheimer b-amyloid protein in trans-Golgi network in the absence of vesicle formation.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1997 Apr 15;94(8):3748-52. PMID: 9108049.

  2. Marquez-Sterling NR, Lo AC, Sisodia SS, Koo EH: Trafficking of cell-surface b-amyloid precursor protein: evidence that a sorting intermediate participates in synaptic vesicle recycling.  J Neurosci 1997 Jan 1;17(1):140-51. PMID: 8987743



  1. Lo AC, Thinakaran G, Slunt HH, Sisodia SS: Metabolism of the amyloid precursor-like protein-2 (APLP2) in MDCK cells: polarized trafficking occurs independent of the chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains.  J. Biol. Chem. 1995 May 26;270(21):12641-5. PMID: 7759513.

  2. Sharp AH, Loev SJ, Schilling G, Li S-H, Li X-J, Bao J, Wagster MV, Kotzuk JA, Steiner JP, Lo A, Hedreen J, Sisodia S, Snyder SH, Dawson TM, Ryugo DK, Ross CA: Widespread expression of Huntington’s disease gene (IT-15) protein product.  Neuron 14:  1065-1074, 1995. PMID: 7748554.

  3. Willoughby DA, Rozovsky I, Lo AC, Finch CE: b-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and APP-RNA are rapidly affected by glutamate in cultured neurons: selective increase of mRNAs encoding a Kunitz protease inhibitor domain.  J. Mol. Neurosci. 1995;6(4):257-76. PMID: 8860237.



  1. Lo AC, Haass C, Wagner SL, Teplow DB, Sisodia SS: Metabolism of the Swedish amyloid precursor protein variant in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells.  J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Dec 9;269(49):30966-73. PMID: 7983032.

  2. Slunt HH, Thinakaran G, Von Koch C, Lo AC, Tanzi RE, Sisodia SS: Expression of a ubiquitous, cross-reactive homologue of the mouse b-amyloid precursor protein (APP).  J. Biol. Chem. 1994 Jan 28;269(4):2637-44. PMID: 8300594.


Book Chapters/Reviews 

  1. Nian S and Lo ACY*: Protecting the aging retina. In: Neuroprotection (2019), edited by Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Yuen-Shan Ho, IntechOpen, print ISBN 978-1-78984-736-9, online ISBN 978-1-78984-737-6, eBook (pdf) ISBN 978-1-78985-925-6,

  2. Wong FSY, Tsang KK, Lo ACY*: Nanoengineered biomaterial for brain tissue reconstruction and functional repairmen. In:Nanoengineered Biomaterials For Regenerative Medicine (2019), edited by Masoud Mozafari, Jayakumar Rajadas and David Kaplan, Elvesier, print ISBN 978-0-12-813355-2.

  3. Nian S and Lo ACY*: Lutein and the aging eye. In: Progress in Carotenoid Research (2018), edited by Leila Queriroz Zepka, Eduardo Jacob-Lopes and Veridiana Vera De Rosso, IntechOpen, print ISBN 978-1-78923-716-0, online ISBN 978-1-78923-717-7.

  4. Tang LHC, Wong IYH, Lo ACY*: Animal Models of Diabetic Retinopathy (Part 1) and (Part 2). In: Experimetnal Animal Models of Human Diseases – An Effective Therapeutic Strategy (2018), edited by Ibeh Bartholomew, IntechOpen, print ISBN 978-1-78923-164-9, online ISBN 978-1-78923-165-6.

  5. Lo ACY*, Yang D: Lycium Barbarum: Neuroprotective Effects in Ischemic Stroke. In: Lycium barbarum and Human Health (2015), edited by Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang and Kwok-Fai So, Springer, ISBN 978-94-017-9658-3.

  6. Lo ACY* and Yang D: Traditional Medicine in the Treatment and Prevention of Ischemic Stroke. In:  Ischemic Stroke: Symptoms, Prevention and Recovery (2013), edited by Virag Lakatos and Balazs Somogyi, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., ISBN 978-1622577996.

  7. Lo ACY* and Wong IY: Nutritional Supplement Use and Age Related Macular Degeneration. In:  Age Related Macular Degeneration (2011), edited by Gui-Shuang Ying, InTech Open Access Publisher, ISBN 978-953-307-864-9 (

  8. Sisodia, SS, Thinakaran G, Lamb BT, Slunt HH, von Koch CS, Ginsberg SD, Lo ACY, Lee MK, Roskams AJI, Masliah E, Zheng H, Van der Ploeg LHT, Gearhart JD, and Price DL: In vivo biology of amyloid precursor protein/amyloid precursor-like proteins and transgenic animal models of Alzheimer's disease. In: Alzheimer's Disease. Etiological Mechanisms and Therapeutic Possibilities. JD Turner, K Beyreuther, F Theuring (EDS), Berlin, Springer, 1996, pp 61-76..

  9. Sisodia SS, Slunt HH, Von Koch C, Lo ACY, and Thinakaran G: Studies of APP biology: analysis of APP secretion and characterization of an APP homologue, APLP2. In: Research and Perspectives in Alzheimer’s Disease. Amyloid Precursor Protein in Development, Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. CL Master, K Beyreuther, M Tirllet and Y Christen (eds), Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1994, pp. 121-133.


Selected Research Grant Awards (Principal Investigator) 

  1. General Research Fund (2019/20) - Retinal neurodegeneration and retinal ischemia in diabetic retinopathy – association with autophagy dysfunction (Project Reference: 17112919)

  2. Health and Medical Research Fund (2018/19) - Terminable cell-encapsulating collagen-alginate composite device for sustained intraocular drug delivery as a therapy for retinal degenerative diseases (Project Reference: 06171516)

  3. Germany/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme 2017/2018 - Vascular pathophysiology and neuronal dysfunction in gestational diabetes-associated retinopathy of prematurity (Project Reference: G-HKU705/17)

  4. Health and Medical Research Fund (2017/18) - Beneficial effects of lutein in maternal diabetes-related retinopathy of prematurity using the diabetic Ins2Akita mouse model (Project Reference: 05163526)

  5. Health and Medical Research Fund (2016/17) - Lutein and candesartan co-treatment delays the progression of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in the diabetic Ins2Akita mouse model (Project Reference: 04150746)

  6. Health and Medical Research Fund (2015/16) - Alleviation of early high mortality and aggravated brain pathology by lutein in a genetic type I diabetic mouse model after experimental stroke (Project Reference: 03142256)

  7. General Research Fund (2013/2014) - Cell-based intraocular delivery of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) by collagen-alginate composite gel as a therapy for retinal degenerative diseases (Project Reference: HKU773613M)

  8. General Research Fund (2010/2011) - Neuroprotective effects of lutein in cerebral and retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury: its relation with oxidative stress and post-ischemic inflammation (Project Reference: HKU HKU773210)

  9. Germany/Hong Kong Joint Research Scheme (2009/10) - Oxidative stress, neuronal dysfunction and neovascularization in retinopathy of prematurity (Project Reference: G_HK029/09)

  10. General Research Fund (1997/98) - Targeted over-expression of endothelin-1 in astrocytes as a transgenic model to investigate its role in brain injury and blood-brain barrier function (Project Reference: HKU7240/97M)


  • Prof. Barbara Chan, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong

  • Prof. Ying Chau, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, School of Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

  • Prof. Sookja Chung, Faculty of Medicine, Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology

  • Prof. Sarah Coupland, Department of Pathology (Ophthalmic Pathology), University of Liverpooll

  • Dr. Zhongjie Fu, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard University

  • Prof. Antonia Joussen, Department of Ophthalmology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin

  • Prof. Wai Ching Lam, Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong

  • Dr. Jetty Lee, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong

  • Dr. Shen Nian, Department of Pathology, Xi’an Medical University

  • Dr. Carl Sheridan, School of Clinical Sciences (Eye and Vision Sciences), University of Liverpool

  • Prof. KF So, Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong

  • Dr. Bin Tang, Department of Micro/Nano Materials and Devices, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China

  • Prof. Andrew Taylor, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University School of Medicine

  • Dr. Weiping Wang, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, The University of Hong Kong

  • Dr. Rachel Williams, Department of Clinical Engineering, University of Liverpool

  • Dr. Di Yang, Department of Ophthalmology, First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming Medical University

  • Dr. Kwok Ming Yao, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Hong Kong