Lam.jpg

Clinical Professor

Albert Bing-Ching Young Professor in Ophthalmology

BSc (Med) (University of Manitoba),

MD (Universityof Manitoba),

RCSCOphth (Canada), FRCSC (Canada), Diplomate of American Board of Ophthalmology

Phone: 2518 2144 / 39621413

Email: waichlam@hku.hk

Professor Wai-Ching Lam graduated from the Faculty of Medicine, the University of Manitoba, Canada in 1982 with MD and BSc(Med) degrees. He completed his ophthalmology residency from 1988-1991, and vitreo-retinal clinical fellowship in 1992 at McGill University, Canada. He obtained his Specialist Certification in Ophthalmology in 1992 and the Fellowship of the Royal College of Physician and Surgeons of Canada in 1993. He also received the Diploma of the American Board of Ophthalmology in 1993.

Professor Lam joined the Department of Ophthalmology at McGill University as assistant professor from 1992-1995. He later moved to University of Toronto in 1996. In Toronto, he has been the Residency Training Program Director from 2001-2013, Continuing Education Director 1996-2016, and the Vitreo-retinal Fellowship Director 2002-2016. He has been the Vice Chair of Education since 2013.


During his time at University of Toronto, he has received numerous teaching awards from the Faculty of Medicine, the Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, University Health Network and the Professional Association of Interns and Residents of the Ontario Universities.

In July, 2016, he has accepted the Clinical Professor appointment and joined the Department of Ophthalmology at University of Hong Kong.

He has published over 60 peer-reviewed articles including articles in medical education. He has also authored 7 book chapters. He serves as the reviewer for many major journals including: Ophthalmology, Retina, IOVS …etc. He is member of the editorial board of the Asian Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology.

His clinical and research interests are in adult and pediatric vitreoretinal diseases, including subjects of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusion, posterior uveitis, HIV related ocular diseases, complex retinal detachment, retinopathy of prematurity…etc., and medical education.

HONOURS and CAREER AWARD

INTERNATIONAL

Received 

   2013 - Achievement Award, Asian Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology

   2013 - Achievement Award, American Academy of Ophthalmology

   2012 - Senior Honour Award, American Society of Retina Specialist

   2009 - Honour Award, American Society of Retina Specialist

 

TEACHING AWARDS

PROVINCIAL

Received 

   1998 - Clinical Teaching Award
              Professional Association of Interns and Residents of Ontario, Ontario
   1998 - Recognizing outstanding teacher among all specialties in province of Ontario, selected by the residents. ( U of Toronto, U of Western Ontario, Queen’s University, McMaster University, U of Ottawa) This was the 1st time such award was given to ophthalmology.

LOCAL

Received 

   2016 - Clive Mortimer, Fellowship Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2016 - Recognizing the significant contribution to the fellowship teaching.

   2013 - Ross Fleming Surgical Teaching Award
              University Health Network (Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto General Hospital, Princess Margaret Hospital),

Toronto, Otario
   2013
- Recognizing the exemplary surgical teaching across all surgical specialties at UHN

   2012 - Individual Teaching Excellence Award in Postgraduate Education
              Wrightman-Berris Academy (University Health Network, and Mount Sinai Hospital) University of Toronto         

   2012 - JD Morin Resident Mentor Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2012
 - Presented by the graduating residents to the staff person, and mentor they felt most supportive.

   2009 - Jack Crawford Teaching Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2009 - For the staff with outstanding contribution to residency training            

   2007 - The Millennium Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2007
 - For the staff with outstanding contribution to resident teaching

   2006 - Jack Crawford Teaching Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2006
 - For the staff person with outstanding contribution to residency training, 2006  Excellence in Postgraduate Medical Education Award, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
   2006
 - Recognition of Excellence in Teaching Performance/ Mentorship/ Advocacy among all medical and surgical
              specialties in Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto. 

   2005 - Millennium Award (Resident Mentor Award)
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto

   2003 - Jack Crawford Teaching Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2003
 - For outstanding contribution to residency training

   2002 - Jack Crawford Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2002
 - For Outstanding Contribution to Residency Training

   2001 - Award for Outstanding Contribution to Residency Training
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto 

   2000 - University of Toronto, Department of Ophthalmology Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   2000
 - For Outstanding Contribution to Residency Training

   1999  - Jack Crawford Award
              Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto
   1999  - For Outstanding Contribution to the ophthalmology residency program

SUPERVISED STUDENT AWARDS

INTERNATIONAL

Received 

   2015   Avant’s Doctor in Training Research Scholarship Program 2015 ($15,000.00)
        “ Transcleral illumination compared with ultrasound biomicroscopy: An analysis of surface landmarks for safe 
sclerotomy in young children”Abhishek Sharma, vitreoretinal fellow, University of Toronto
   2015  Global Ophthalmology Awards Program from Bayer (US $43,905)
              - this is an international peer reviewed fellowship award, which 5 awards are given every year.
           “ ranscleral illumination compared with ultrasound biomicroscopy: An analysis of surface landmarks for safe
sclerotomy in young children” Abhishek Sharma, vitreoretinal fellow, University of Toronto

   2014   Global Ophthalmology Awards Program from Bayer (US $49,000)

      - this is an international peer reviewed fellowship research scholarship, which only 5 awards are given every          year.

      “Is a specific defensin gene profile associated with endophthalmitis following a variety of       intraocular  procedures” Jonathan Park, vitreoretinal fellow, University of Toronto.

   2013   Global Ophthalmology Awards Program from Bayer (US $49,560)

     - this is an international peer reviewed fellowship research scholarship, which only 5 awards are given every

     year. “Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Intraocular Inflammatory Cytokines in the Non

     Responder to Ranibizumab Treatment” Pear Pongsachareonnont, vitreoretinal fellow, University of Toronto

   2010  Best of show for the poster presentation

     The 36th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
    “Surgery for persistent fetal vasculature: Outcomes and prognosis”
     Hannah Chiu, medical student, University of Toronto  

 

NATIONAL

Received 

   2013  Canadian Ophthalmology Society Award for Excellence in Ophthalmic Research Annual Canadian

Ophthalmological

Society Meeting
-   1st prize    
“Demonstration of anatomical development of the human macula within the first five years of life using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)”

Talal Alabdujalil, ophthalmology resident, University of Toronto

  2012  Canadian Ophthalmology Society Award for Excellence in Ophthalmic ResearchAnnual Canadian Ophthalmological

         Society Meeting

-   2nd prize   
“The effect of repeated topical fluroroquinolone use post intravitreal injection for  neovascular age-related macular degeneration on ocular surface flora” Vivian Yin, ophthalmology resident, University of Toronto

  2011  Canadian Ophthalmological Society Award of Excellence in Ophthalmic Research, Annual Canadian Ophthalmological                   

         Society Meeting

 -   2nd place winner
“The feasibility of air travel in patients with scleral buckle and intraocular gas”
Jason Nobel, ophthalmology resident, University of Toronto

  2009  Best presentation of the Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus session, Annual Canadian Ophthalmology Society

Meeting
“Surgery for persistent fetal vasculature: Outcomes and prognosis”
Hannah Chiu, medical student, University of Toronto

  2002  Coherent-AMT Award for Excellence in Ophthalmic Research Canadian Ophthalmology Society Annual Meeting

-   2nd prize
“Retinal blood flow after laser induced retinochoroidal anastamosis.”
Dr. Tara Young, 2000, Ophthalmology Resident, University of Toronto

PROVINCIAL

Received 

  2008  24th Annual Research Day
             UBC Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences

     -   Best resident paper
    Oral vs. topical diclofenac for pain prevention during panretinal laser photocoagulation
    Peter Zakrzewski, ophthalmology resident, University of British Columbia

LOCAL

Received 

   2014   Annual Research Day
              University of Toronto, Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences
              Best Resident Research Paper
             "Delivery recommendations for pregnant women with risk factors for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment:   

              current

              practice among Canadian ophthalmologists and obstetricians"
              Hannah Chiu, ophthalmology resident, University of Toronto

   2014   JD Hatcher Award for summer student research scholarship,  Queen’s University
              “ Changes in retinal blood flow and oxygenation parameters in response to intravitreal injection of

              ranibizumab inpatient

              with retinal vein occlusion”
              David Carlone, medical Student, Queen’s University

   2014   Summer student Fellowship, Fight for Sight.
              “Is retinal detachment in optic nerve coloboma associated with retro-orbital cysts?”
              Nancy Chen, medical student, University of Western Ontario

   2011   Summer student Fellowship, Fight for Sight
              “Is antibiotic prophylaxis following intravitreal injections effective in preventing endophthalmitis?”
              Crystal Cheung, medical student, University of Ottawa

   2009  Dr. Tom Fejer Ophthalmology Award, the University of Toronto Medical Alumni Association
              “Descemet membrane detachment repair with long acting gas” Imran Jivral, medical student, University of

              Toronto

   2005  George Memorial Award for the first prize in the Health Science category
              Medical Student Research Day, University of Toronto
              “Medical Students' Self-Confidence in Performing Direct Ophthalmoscopy in Clinical Training”
              Rishi Gupta, medical student, University of Toronto

   2004  Alumni award for the best resident research day paper
              Department of Ophthalmology Annual Research Day, University of Toronto
              “Erythropoietin level in vitreous of patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy”
              Marissa Sit, Ophthalmology resident, University of Toronto

   2002  John Gaby Prize for the best fellow research day paper
              Department of Ophthalmology Annual Research Day, University of Toronto,
              “An investigation using the hypobaric chamber into the effects of air flight on eye pressure in patients having

              undergone

     combined vitrectomy and scleral buckling surgery”
     Dr. Jeffrey Lim, Retina Fellow 


BOOK CHAPTER

  1. Mavrikakis E, Lam WC, Khan B:  Update of Diabetic Macular Edema.  Emedicine/Ophthalmology.  www.emedicine.com 2009.

  2. Ophthalmology Chapter, Essentials for the Canadian Medical Licensing Exam:  Review and Prep for MCCQE Part I. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2009

  3. Front Row View: Video Collection of Eye Surgery. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2007.

  4. Devenyi RG, Lam WC:  Paediatric Retinal Disease.  The Hospital for Sick Children Paediatric Ophthalmology Atlas, AV Levin, editor, 2006.

  5. Ling R, Lam WC, Trope G: Pars Plana Insertion of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve. Glaucoma Surgery. Edited by Graham E Trope. Taylor & Francis, 2005.

  6. Lam WC, Heon E, Levin AV:  Ophthalmic Surgery:  Surgical Considerations.  Pediatric Anaesthisa, Principles & Practice.  McGraw-Hill, 2002.

  7. Lam WC, Khan B:  Diabetic Macular Edema.  Emedicine/Ophthalmology.  www.emedicine.com 2001.

 

 

PUBLICATIONS

  1. Gan NY, Zimmer C, Lam WC. Multi-spectral imaging of circumscribed choroidal hemangioma. Ophthalmic Surg Laser Imaging Retina. 2017 July1; 48(7):572-575(senior responsible author)

  2. Chen YN, Patel CK, Kertes PJ, Devenyi RG, Blaser S, Lam WC. Retinal detachment and retrobulbar cysts in a large cohort of optic nerve coloboma. Retina 2017 March 23 (senior responsible author)

  3. Iu LP, Lee R, Fan MC, Lam WC, Chang RT, Wong IY. Serial spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings in Acute Retinal Pigment Epitheliitis and correlation to visual acuity. Ophthalmology. 2017 March 8.pil SO 161-6420(16)32025-5.(co-author)

  4. Chaudhary V, Barbosa J, Lam WC, Mak M, Mavrikakis E, Mohaghedh PSM. Ozurdex in age-related macular degeneration as adjunct to ranibizumanb (The OARA Study) Can J Ophthalmol. 2016 August; 51(4): 302-5.

  5. Micieli JA, Christakis PG, Lam WC, Muni RH. Diffuse Unilateral Subacute Neuroretinitis from racoon exposure resistance to laser photocoagulation. Ophthalmic Surgical Laser Imaging Retina. 2016 Jul1;47(7): 686-90.

  6. Chaudhary V, Brent M, Lam WC, Devenyi R, Teichman J, Mak M, Barbosa J, Kaur H, Carter R, Farrokhyar F. Genetic Risk Evaluation in Wet Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatment Responses. Ophthalmolgica 2016 Jul 1.

  7. Yoo P, Carlone D, Ren LY, Lam WC. Assessment of online health resources for ophthalmology patients with age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Can J Ophthalmology. 2016 Feb; 51(1).

  8. AlAli A, Bushehri A, Park JC, Krema H, Lam WC. Pimasertib and serous retinal detachments. Retina Cases Brief Report. 2015 Oct 28.

  9. Leung V, Quigley L, Lam WC, Cavalcanti R, Hodges B. Clinical efficiency and resident education: a fine balance. Postgrad Med J. 2015 Sept; 91(1079): 475-6.

  10. Lam WC, Albiani DA, Yoganathan P, Chen JC, Kherani A, Maberley DA, Oliver A, Rabinovitch T, Sheidow TG, Tourville E, Wittenberg LA, Sigouin C, Baptiste DC. Real-world assessment of intravitreal dexamethasone implant (0.7mg) in patients with macular edema: the CHROME study. Clin Ophthalmolo.2015 Jul 10; 9:1255-68.

  11. Lei S, Lam WC. Efficacy and safety of dexamethasone intravitreal implant for refractory macular edema in children. Can J Ophthalmol. 2015 June; 50(3): 236-41

  12. Chiu H, Steele D, McAlister C, Lam WC. Delivery recommendations for pregnant females with risk factors for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Can J Ophthalmol. 2015 Feb; 50(1) 11-8. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

  13. Noble J, Kanchanaranya N, Devenyi RG, Lam WC. Evaluating the safety of air travel for patients with scleral buckles and small volumes of intraocular gas. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014 Sept: 98(9): 1226-9. Epub 2014 April 29. 

  14. Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Michalewska Z, Ducournau D; European Vitreo-Retinal Society (EVRS) Retinal Detachment Study Group. Clinical variables associated with failure of retinal detachment repair: the European vitreo-retinal society retinal detachment study report number 4. Ophthalmology. 2014 Sept; 121(9): 1715-9. (collaborator)

  15. Mammo ZN, Yousif F, Lam WC. Educational outcomes of The University of Toronto Visiting Professor Rounds Series. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2014 Feb; 49(1): 96-101

  16. Hooper P, Boucher MC, Colleaux K, Cruess A, Lam WC, Shortt S, Tourville E. Contemporary management of diabetic retinopathy in Canada: from guidelines to algorithm guidance. Ophthalmologica. 2014: 23(1): 2-15

  17. Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Sipperley JO, Ducoumau D; European Vitreo-Retinal Society (EVRS) Retinal Detachment Study Group. Strategy for the management of uncomplicated retinal detachments: the European vitreo-retinal society retinal detachment study report 2. Ophthalmology. 2013 September; 120(9): 1809-13. (collaborator)

  18. Rootman DB, Luu S, Conti S, Mandell M, Devenyi R, Lam WC, Kertes PJ. Predictors of treatment failure for pneumatic retinopexy. Canadian Journal Ophthalmology. 2013 Dec; 48(6): 549-52.

  19. Adelman RA, Parnes AJ, Ducoumau D; European Vitreo-Retinal Society (EVRS) Retinal Detachment Study Group. Strategy for the management of uncomplicated retinal detachments: the European vitreo-retinal society retinal detachment study report 1. Ophthalmology. 2013 September; 120(9): 1804-8. (collaborator)

  20. Yin VT, Weisbrod DJ, Eng KT, Schwartz C, Kohly R, Mandelcorn E, Lam WC, Daneman N, Sior A, Kertes PJ. Antibiotic resistance of ocular surface flora with repeated use of a topical antibiotic after intravitreal injection. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 April; 131(4): 456-61.

  21. Cheung CS, Wong AW, Lui A, Kertes PJ, Devenyi RG, Lam WC. Author reply: to PMID 22480743. Ophthalmology. 2013 Feb; 120(2): 438-9.

  22. Schlenker MB, Lam WC, Devenyi RG, Kertes PJ. Understanding macular holes that develop after repair of retinal detachment. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012 October; 47(5): 435-41.

  23. Podbielski DW, Nobel J, Gill HS, Sit M, Lam WC. A comparison of hand- and foot-activated surgical tools in simulated ophthalmic surgery. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012 Oct; 47(5) 414-7.

  24. Hooper P, Boucher MC, Cruess A, Dawson KG, Delpero W, Greve M, Kozousek V, Lam WC, Maberly DA. Canadian Ophthalmological Society evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of diabetic retinopathy. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2012 April; 47(2 Supplement): S1-30, S31-54.

  25. Cheung CS, Wong AW, Lui A, Kertes PJ, Devenyi RG, Lam WC. Incidence of Endophthalmitis and use of antibiotic prophylaxis after intravitreal injections. Ophthalmology. 2012 August; 119(8):1609-14.

  26. Rootman DB, Lam K, Sit M, Lui E, Dubrowski A, Lam WC. Psychometric properties of a new tool to assess task-specific and global competency in cataract surgery. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2012 March 22: 1-6.

  27. Puzyeyeva O, Lam WC, Flanagan JG, Brent MH, Deveneyi RG, Mandelcorn MS, Wong T, Hudson C. High-resolution optical coherence tomography retinal imaging: a case series illustrating potential and limitations. J Ophthalmol. 2011; 764183. Epub 2011, Sep 29.

  28. Cheung CS, Butty Z, Tehrani NN, Lam WC. Computer-assisted imaging analysis of temporal retinal vessel width and tortuosity in retinopathy of prematurity for the assessment of disease severity and treatment outcome. J AAPOS. 2011 Aug; 15(4): 374-80.

  29. Micieli JA, Tsui E, Lam WC, Brent MH, Devenyi RG, Hudson C. Retinal blood flow in response to an intravitreal injection of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2011 July 29.

  30. D’Souza MJ, Chaudhary V, Devenyi R, Kertes PJ, Lam WC. Re-opening of idiopathic full thickness macular holes after initial surgery with internal limiting membrane peel. British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb 25.

  31. Razik R, Mammo Z, Gill HS, Lam WC. Academic screencasting: internet bases dissemination of ophthalmology grand rounds. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb; 46(1): 72-76.

  32. Le TD, Adatia FA, Lam WC. Virtual reality ophthalmic surgical simulator as a feasible training and assessment tool: results of a multicenter study. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb; 46(1): 56-60.

  33. Kohly RP, Muni RH, Kertes PJ, Lam WC. Management of pediatric choroidal neovascular membranes with intravitreal ant-VEGF agents: a retrospective consecutive case series. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2011 Feb; 46(1) 46-50

  34. Mavrikakis E, Levin AV, Lam WC. Choroidal neovascularization secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis in an infant. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2010 Dec; 45(6): e11-2.

  35. Robitaille JM, Zheng B, Wallack K, Beis MJ, Tatlidil C, Yang J, Sheidow TG, Siebert L, Levin AV, Lam WC, Arthur BW, Lyons CJ, Jaakkola E, Tsilou E, William CA, Weaver RG jr, Shield CL, Guernsey DL. The role of Frizzled-4 mutation in familial exudative vitreo-retinopathy and Coats disease. British Journal of Ophthalmology. Nov 21 2010.

  36. Eramus M, Lam WC. Editorial, Retina Canada 2009. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009 October; 44(5): 505-6.

  37. Zhou AW, Noble J, Lam WC. Canadian ophthalmology residency training: an evaluation of resident satisfaction and comparison with international standards. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009 October; 44(5): 504-7

  38. Noble J, Somal K, Gill HS, Lam WC. An analysis of undergraduate ophthalmology training in Canada. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009; 44(5): 513-8.

  39. Salim S, Lam WC, Hanna W. Central retinal vein occlusion with therapeutic level of anticoagulation. Case report in Medicine. Volume 2009, Article ID 827982, Epub 2009 June 18

  40. Mavrikakis E, Lam WC. Macular schisis and detachment secondary to large optic nerve head cup: a new recognized syndrome amendable to vitrectomy. Acta Ophthalmol 2009 June 22.

  41. Somal K, Lam WC, Tam E. Computer and internet use by ophthalmologists and trainees in an academic center. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2009 June 44(3): 265-8.

  42. Zakrzewski PA, O’Donnell HL, Lam WC. Oral versus topical diclofenac for pain prevention during panretinal photocoagulation.  Ophthalmology. 2009 June 116(6): 1168-1174.

  43. Mavrikakis E, Lam WC. Current trend of intravitreal steroid use in retinal disease. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. April 44(2):147-153.

  44. Baath JS, Lam WC, Kirby, Chun A. Deferoxamine-related ocular toxicity: Incidence and outcome in a pediatric population. Retina. 2008 June (28): 894-899.

  45. Gill HS, Lam WC. A screening strategy for the detection of sickle cell retinopathy in pediatric patients. Canadian Journal Ophthalmology. 2008 April; 43(2):188-91.

  46. Gilmore ED, Hudson C, Nrusimhadevara RK, Ridout R, Harvey PT, Mandelcorn M, Lam WC, Devenyi RG.  Retinal arteriolar hemodynamic response to a combined isocapnic hyperoxia and glucose provocation in early sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Feb;49(2):699-705.

  47. Iizuka M, Gorfinkel J, Mandelcorn M, Lam WC, Devenyi RG, Markowitz SN. Modified cataract surgery with telescopic magnification for patients with age-related macular degeneration. Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. 2007 Dec; 42(6): 854-9.

  48. Gilmore ED, Hudson C, Nrusimhadevara RK, Harvey PT, Mandelcorn M, Lam WC, Devenyi RG.  Retinal arteriolar diameter, blood velocity, and blood flow response to an isocapnic hyperoxic provocation in early sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Apr;48(4):1744-50.

  49. Gilmore ED, Hudson C, Nrusimhadevara RK, Ridout R, Harvey PT, Mandelcorn M, Lam WC, Devenyi RG.  Retinal arteriolar hemodynamic response to an acute hyperglycemic provocation in early and sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy. Microvasc Res. 2007 May;73(3): 191-7. Epub 2007 Jan 30.

  50. Chew HF, Eng KT, Geddie WR, Lam WC. Endogenous endophthalmitis presenting as a choroidal abscess in a healthy individual. Retinal Cases & Brief Reports Winter 2007; 1(1): 27-29.

  51. Gupta RR, Lam WC.  Medical students’ self-confidence in performing direct ophthalmoscopy in clinical training.  Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology 41(2): 169-174, April 2006.

  52. Kisilevsky M, Hudson C, Flanagan JG, Nrusimhadevara RK, Guan K, Wong T, Mandelcorn M, Lam WC, Devenyi RG.  Agreement of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II macula edema module with fundus biomicroscopy in diabetic maculopathy.  Arch Ophthalmol. 124(3): 337-42, March 2006.

  53. Adam RS, Kertes P, Lam WC. Observations on the management of Coats' disease: less is more. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007 Mar;91(3): 303-6. Epub 2006 Oct 4.

  54. Guan K, Hudson C, Wong T, Kisilevsky M, Nrusimhadevara R, Lam WC, Mandelcorn M, Devenyi RG, Flanagan JG.  Retinal hemodynamics in early diabetic macular edema. Diabetes. 2006 Mar;55(3):813-8.

  55. Elia Y, Daneman D, Rovet J, Abdolell M, Lam WC, Erraguntla V, Westall CA.  Chromatic mechanisms of children with Type I diabetes:  Relationship to metabolic control.  Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci.  46(11):  4107-13, Nov 2005.

  56. Gnanaraj L, Lam WC, Rootman DR, Levin AV.  Endoscopic closure of a cyclodialysis cleft.  Journal of American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmologist and Strabismus.  9(6): 592-4, Dec 2005.

  57. Forooghian F, Lam WC, Hopkins J, Dhanda, D:  Bilateral Neuroretinitis with Peripapillary Serous Retinal Detachments in a patient with HIV and HBV.  Arch Ophthalmol. 123: 1447-1449, 2005.

  58. Eng KT, Lam WC, Parker JA, Yucel YH: Retinal toxicity of intravitreal ganciclovir in rabbit eyes following vitrectomy and insertion of silicone oil. Can J Ophthalmology. 39: 499-505, 2004.

  59. Nia J, Lam WC, Kleinman D, Kirby M, Eng KT, Liu ES: Retinopathy in sickle cell trait: does it exist?  Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, 38: 46-51, 2003.

  60. Averbukh E, Devenyi RG, Lam WC, Berger AR:  Pneumatic displacement of submacular hemorrhage.  Ophthalmology, 107: 2118-9, 2001.

  61. Jain N, Lam WC, Waheed S, Thai Q, Heathcote J:  Retinopathy in chronic hepatitis C patients during interferon treatment with ribavirin.  British Journal of Ophthalmology, 85: 1171-1173, 2001.

  62. Mills MD, Devenyi RG, Lam WC, Berger AR, Beijer D, Lam S:  An assessment of intraocular pressure rise in patients with gas filled eyes during simulated air flight.  Ophthalmology, 108: 40-44, 2001.

  63. MacKeen LD, Nischal KK, Lam WC, Levin AV:  High-frequency ultrasound findings in persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.  Journal of American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmologist and Strabismus, 4(4): 217-224, 2000.

  64. Liu E, Nijhawan N, Gladman D, Lam WC, Buys Y:  Primary antiphospholipid syndrome and neovascular glaucoma.  Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, 34(6): 349-352, 1999.

  65. Lam WC, Kruk P, Farrer ME:  Ocular manifestation of systemic disease:  Six illustrated cases.  The Practice Journal for Canadian Primary Care Physicians, 10(3): 78-89, 1999.

  66. Mills MD, Devenyi RG, Lam WC, Berger AR, Beijer D:  The feasibility of travel in commercial aircraft by patients with residual intraocular gas.  Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 39(4): 769, March 1998.

  67. Wong A, Lam WC, Sharpe J:  Terson’s syndrome in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology, 18(2): 148-149, 1998.

  68. Mills MD, Devenyi RG, Flanagan JF, Harvey P, Lam WC:  Relationship between retinal capillary blood flow and the acute level of glycemia in diabetics.  Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 38(4): S780, March 1997.

  69. Lam WC, Wong A, Chen J:  Scleral ectasia in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.  Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology, 31(5): 241-2244, 1996.

  70. Deschenes J, Baines M, Lam WC, Antecka E:  Antibodies to human lens antigens in uveitis and cataract.  Recent Advances in Uveitis.  Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Uveitis, 1992; 129-131.

  71. Orr FW, Lam WC, Delikatny EJ, Mokashi S, Varani J:  Localization of intravenously injected tumor cells in the rat mesentery after intraperitoneal administration of chemotactic stimuli.  Invasion Metastasis, 1:239-247, 1981.

  72. Lam WC, Delikatny EJ, Orr FW, Wass J, Varani J, Ward PA:  The chemotactic response of tumor cells.  A model for cancer metastasis.  American Journal of Pathology, 104: 69-76, 1981.