As medical practitioner, he or she should be able to conduct a basic clinical eye examination and, if necessary, order appropriate investigations and initiate treatment. He or she should be able to communicate the clinical diagnosis and its implications for management with a patient and other health professional.
The medical practitioner should be aware of his or her limitations, in terms of knowledge, experience and skills, and always practises within these limits. He or she should be prepared to refer patients to other practitioners where appropriate, whether for diagnosis, treatment or support. He or she should have an aptitude for and commitment to continuing professional development.
The main objectives we aim to address in undergraduate ophthalmic training include:
Attain competency in essential ophthalmic skills - especially in the context of a non-ophthalmic physician 獲得基本眼科技能的能力 - 特別是在非眼科醫師的情況下
Attain action-oriented medical knowledge - to recognise salient symptoms and signs of ophthalmic emergencies for urgent referral and to appreciate common eye conditions 獲得以行動為導向的醫學知識 - 識別眼科緊急情況的突出症狀和體徵以進行緊急轉診，並了解常見的眼部疾病
Appreciate the important public health concern and societal burden of potentially preventable blinding diseases 認識到潛在可預防的致盲疾病的重要公共衛生問題和社會負擔
Appreciate the role of ophthalmologists in the medical community and to upload the highest standard of medical ethics 欣賞眼科醫生在醫學界的作用並上傳最高標準的醫學倫理
Horizontal and Vertical Integration
The curriculum is integrated horizontally (with other parts of the curriculum being delivered each year) and vertically (from one year to another in a progressive manner).
Year 1 & 2 (System-based Blocks)
In the first two years, ophthalmology is taught along with anatomy and physiology illustrating the clinical relevance and importance of basic science. An introduction to ophthalmic clinical skills, particularly visual acuity and pupil examination, will be conducted during the Endocrine and Reproductive Systems Block (ERS).
在前兩年，眼科與解剖學和生理學一起教授，說明基礎科學的臨床相關性和重要性。眼科臨床技能介紹，特別是視力和瞳孔檢查，將在內分泌和生殖系統模塊 (ERS) 期間進行。
Year 4 (Clinical Foundation Block and Junior Clerkship)
4 年級（臨床基礎課程和Junior Clerkship)
The objective of the fourth year is to achieve competencies in ophthalmic clinical examination skills. The teaching is done in the form of skill laboratory during the integrated block. This will ensure that that the students are equipped with the skills and confidence to examine patients when they start their junior clerkship. They will be encouraged to utilise these skills during their junior clerkship. Furthermore, these basic ophthalmic examination skills can enable them to perform a more complete systemic evaluation of patients during their junior clerkship.
Two new whole class sessions (WCS) will be delivered to cover the ophthalmic manifestations of systemic diseases and common eye diseases to provide background information when the students encounter patients later in their clerkship.
兩個新的全班課程 (WCS) 將提供涵蓋全身性疾病和常見眼病的眼科表現，以便學生在以後遇到患者時提供背景信息。
Year 5 (Senior Clerkship)
Year 5 will give the students the greatest exposure to ophthalmology. The knowledge and clinical examination skills acquired in Years 1 to 4 provide the necessary background for the students to begin their clinical attachments in Year 5.
5 年級將給學生最大的眼科接觸機會。 1至4年級獲得的知識和臨床考試技能為學生在5年級開始臨床實習提供了必要的背景。
At the beginning of their senior clerkship, 6 WCS, in the form of didactic lectures will be introduced. The topics of these lectures are symptom based and enhance clinical application:
在他們的高級文員開始時，將以教學講座的形式介紹 6 WCS。這些講座的主題是基於症狀並增強臨床應用的：
Red eyes 紅眼睛
Trauma & Ocular emergency 創傷和眼部緊急情況
Eye problems in children 兒童眼部問題
Acute visual loss 急性視力喪失
Gradual visual loss 逐漸喪失視力
Flashing photopsia 閃爍的光暈
Furthermore, students will have 6 days of tutorials and clinical attachments. We plan to deliver part of the teaching based on a problem-based format. There are 5 clinical scenarios and the students are given resources to look for the information to answer the questions posed, before group discussions and guided discussions lead by a teacher. The clinical scenarios for the problem-based learning sessions are as follows:
此外，學生將有 6 天的教程和臨床實習。我們計劃以基於問題的形式提供部分教學。有 5 個臨床場景，在小組討論和教師引導的討論之前，學生會獲得資源來尋找信息來回答提出的問題。基於問題的學習課程的臨床場景如下：
Red eyes 紅眼睛
Acute and chronic visual loss 急性和慢性視力喪失
Eye problems in children 兒童眼部問題
Ophthalmic manifestations of systemic disease 全身性疾病的眼科表現
Additionally, to better prepare our students for the digital age of telemedicine, we will have an additional tutorial on ‘A systematic approach to fundus photo interpretation’. Using 20 case scenarios, teachers will guide students to identify and report salient physical signs on fundus photos.
The students will be assigned to the ophthalmic clinic service of the Grantham Hospital Lo Fong Shiu Po Eye Centre. During the clinical attachments, students will be exposed to busy clinics, operating theatre and different advanced ophthalmic investigations. There will be structured pathway through the clinics to reinforce skills, with a particular focus on direct ophthalmoscopy. Students are expected to learn alongside a multi-disciplinary team including nurses and optometrists.
We have also introduced a half day attachment to our 6-day clerkship at the HKU-Southern District Eye Screening Program with a focus on common eye diseases in the community. It would allow students to 1) practice direct ophthalmoscopy on subjects who give consent to this and would also allow 2) review of fundus photos with our teaching staff as well as 3) learn to interpret common ophthalmic investigations.
我們還在港大南區眼科檢查計劃的 6 天文員中引入了半天的實習，重點是社區中的常見眼病。它將允許學生 1) 對同意這樣做的受試者進行直接檢眼鏡檢查，還允許 2) 與我們的教學人員一起查看眼底照片以及 3) 學習解釋常見的眼科檢查。
The WCS at the Final Revision block will be conducted in the form of an interactive slide quiz of common eye conditions and ophthalmic manifestations of systemic disease to prepare students for the final summative examination.
最終修訂版塊的 WCS 將以互動幻燈片測驗的形式進行，內容涉及常見眼部疾病和全身性疾病的眼科表現，為學生準備最終總結性考試。
Medical Education-related Publications
Ophthalmic clinical skills teaching in the time of COVID‐19: a crisis and opportunity. KC Shih, JCH Chan, JY Chen, JSM Lai
Medical education 54 (7), 663-664
Clinical skills education at the bed‐side, web‐side and lab‐side. ACO Tsang, KC Shih, JY Chen
Medical Education 55 (1), 112-114
Does the COVID-19 Pandemic Spell the End for the Direct Ophthalmoscope? KC Shih, CYC Chau, JCH Chan, JKW Wong, JSM Lai. Ophthalmology and therapy 9 (4), 689-692
Teaching Development Grants
Introduction of Virtual Reality to the Teaching of Direct Ophthalmoscopy for Medical Students at the University of Hong Kong
Principal Investigator: Dr Nicholas Siu Kay Fung, Department of Ophthalmology
Co-investigators: Dr Rachel Cheung, Dr Amiee Pang, Ms Christina Wong, Prof Wai Ching Lam
Developing Telemedicine Consultation Skills for Future Doctors
Principal Investigator: Dr Anderson Chun On Tsang, Department of Surgery
Co-investigators: Dr Gary Kui Kai Lau, Dr Kendrick Co Shih, Professor Kent Man Chu, Dr Raymond King Yin Tsang, Dr Tsui Yee Emily Tse
Introduction of Augmented Reality (AR) Technologies to Educate Medical Students the Visual Symptoms and Progression of Important Vision-threatening Diseases
Principal Investigator: Dr. Yau-Kei Chan, Department of Ophthalmology
Co-investigators: Dr. Kendrick Co Shih, Dr Nicholas Siu Kay Fung, Professor Wai Ching Lam